C# and F# on the Mac with Mono

Mono is the open source .NET runtime for Windows, Linux, and OS X. It consists of the Mono runtime environment, libraries, and C# and F# compilers. Recently Mono has gained extra popularity due to Microsoft’s purchase of Xamarin, the makers of a cross-platform toolkit of the same name.

If you just want to create command-line .NET applications on the Mac, and don’t need Xamarin.Forms or the mobile tools, you can just install Mono and start hacking away.

The Mono Project home page advises you to download and install Mono as a Mac package, but you also do a a Homebrew-based installation. If you don’t yet have Homebrew (“the missing package manager for OS X”), install it by following the instructions on its home page.

Once you have Homebrew installed, you can install Mono:

$ brew install mono
==> Downloading https://homebrew.bintray.com/bottles/mono-
######################################################################## 100.0%
==> Pouring mono-
==> Caveats
To use the assemblies from other formulae you need to set:
export MONO_GAC_PREFIX="/usr/local"
Note that the 'mono' formula now includes F#. If you have
the 'fsharp' formula installed, remove it with 'brew uninstall fsharp'.
==> Summary
🍺 /usr/local/Cellar/mono/ 1,280 files, 205.2M

You can probably pick up that I’m still using OS X Yosemite on this machine, but there shouldn’t be any difference with El Capitan. If you upgraded from Yosemite to El Capitan, and had Homebrew installed, you may have run into an issue with the OS X security restrictions – read the solution.

C# support for Visual Studio Code

Microsoft Visual Studio Code, or VSCode for short, is a relatively new programmer’s text editor, but already quite mature. Typically I use it for Python, Clojure and JavaScript. Now I wanted to use it to edit C# source files on the Mac, but surprisingly it does not have C# syntax highlighting support out of the box. You need to install an extension and restart VSCode.

Hello, .NET world!

Just a simple C# source file to get you started:

using System;

namespace Hello
    class Hello
        static void Main(string[] args)
            Console.WriteLine("Hello, .NET world!");

Save it as Hello.cs. Compile with:

mcs Hello.cs

Here, mcs is the Mono C# compiler. You should get a file named Hello.exe, but you can’t execute it directly. Instead, use the Mono runtime:

mono Hello.exe

You should see the greeting printed out by Console.WriteLine.

Why C#?

I’m dusting off the C# tools on my Mac because I envision that C# and .NET will become more important on OS X because of the Xamarin acquisition. I like C#, sometimes better than Java, and have programmed many applications for Windows Phone with it.

Why F#?

F# intrigues me as a language that embraces many of the good things about functional programming, but lets you leverage the .NET ecosystem. I’ve started to learn F# in earnest several times during the last few years, but have not made a concentrated attempt yet. Hopefully soon.

Semi-Autonomous, Programmable Drones Incoming

Drones, or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), be they quadcopters or other type of flyer, will become more “intelligent” as themselves or by forming swarms, as this TED Talk by Vijay Kumar at the University of Pennsylvania shows:

My interest in drones lies not in flying them myself live, because I’m a lousy pilot and don’t play games much anyway, but in making them follow a predetermined route and return back to the starting point – for example, surveying an object or estate, or even carrying cargo between waypoints. The gorgeous aerial shots you get with many drones these days are great, of course, but I’ll let others play the director, and instead concentrate on the programming.

I recently got a Parrot AR.Drone 2.0 Elite Edition, mostly because it was the cheapest quadcopter that has an SDK, allowing you to create your own applications on top of it, or extend and customise some sample applications. (AR.Drone 2.0 SDK)

I did some web searches on the programmability of the AR.Drone, and it seems that the biggest craze has faded a little bit. Many of the libraries for Python and Node.js are not seeing as active development as I would have thought, and groups like NodeCopter are not too active either.

It also seems that some active members have moved on to do greater things, like Fleye, a personal flying robot – the result of work by Laurent Eschenauer and Dimitri Arendt:

The Fleye Kickstarter campaign is still ongoing, with delivery scheduled for September 2016.

Ecshenauer is the author of the Node.js library ardrone-autonomy, which itself is based on node-ar-drone by Felix Geisendörfer.

There is also the python-ardrone library for Python, which I would prefer over Node.js.

I have tested both node-ar-drone and python-ardrone quickly with the AR.Drone 2.0, and it is an exhilarating experience to see your quadcopter come to life and rise up to hover, just by entering a few commands in the Node or Python REPL. (Just make sure you can quickly call the land() function, especially if you are experimenting indoors.)

There are also some Clojure libraries for controlling the AR.Drone, such as clj-drone and turboshrimp, but I’m not sure if I would want to add JVM to the mix.

My inspiration for programming drones actually got sparked by the O’Reilly Programming Newsletter, which featured a recent article by Greg on The Yhat Blog titled “Building a (semi) Autonomous Drone with Python“. It had a lot of tips about how to start with this kind of activity, and extending it to involve computer vision using OpenCV.

I intend to develop some applications that fly the AR.Drone automatically along the perimeter of a large object, such as a house, or along some predetermined line, like the side of a field. I hope to document some of the results in this blog.

If you’re interested in programming semi-autonomous drones, drop me a line with any ideas, tips, questions, or collaborations.

LCD-like banners in Python

Back in 1998 or so, I wrote a CD player application for Microsoft Windows in Borland Delphi. It was for a magazine tutorial article, and I wanted a cool LCD-like display to show track elapsed and remaining time. There was a good one available for Delphi, called LCDLabel, written by Peter Czidlina (if you’re reading this, thanks once more for your cooperation).

I’ve been thinking about doing a modern version of the LCD display component for several times over the years, and I even got pretty far with one for OS X in 2010, but then abandoned it because of other projects. A few years ago I did some experiments with the LCD font file and wrote a small Python app to test it.

My most recent idea involving simulated LCD displays is to create a custom component for iOS and OS X in Swift. For that, I dug up the most recent Python project and tried to nail down the LCD font file format, so that I could later use it in Swift. I decided to use JSON.

The LCD font consists of character matrices, typically 5 columns by 7 rows, each describing a character on the LCD panel. The value of a matrix cell is one if the dot should be on, and zero if it should be off. I decided to store each cell value as an integer, even if it is a bit wasteful – but it is easy to maintain, and if you squint a bit, you can see the shape of the LCD character.

So the digit zero would be represented as a 2-dimensional matrix like this:


The font consists of as many characters as you like, but you need to identify them somehow. In JSON, you can do this with one-character strings, where the sole character is the Unicode code point of the character. So, with some additional useful information, a font with just the numeric digits 0, 1, and 2 would be represented in JSON like this:

"name": "Hitachi",
"columncount": 5,
"rowcount": 7,
"characters": {
"\u0030": [
"\u0031": [
"\u0032": [

With the font coming along nicely, I wrote a Python script to exercise it, by printing a banner-like message:

import json

def banner(message):
    mats = []
    for ch in message:

    output = ''
    num_rows = len(mats[0])
    num_cols = len(mats[0][0])

    for r in range(0, num_rows):
        for m in mats:
            for c in range(0, num_cols):
                if m[r] == 1:
                    output += 'X'
                    output += '.'
            output += ' '
        output += '\n'
    return output

font_data = None
with open('lcd-font-hitachi.json') as json_file:
  font_data = json.load(json_file)
  characters = font_data['characters']


Running this Python script would print out a banner like this one:

.XXX. ..X.. .XXX.
X...X .XX.. X...X
X..XX ..X.. ....X
X.X.X ..X.. ...X.
XX..X ..X.. ..X..
X...X ..X.. .X...

By adding characters to the JSON font file it becomes possible to print text messages instead of just numbers:

X...X ..... .XX.. .XX.. ..... ..X..
X...X ..... ..X.. ..X.. ..... ..X..
X...X .XXX. ..X.. ..X.. .XXX. ..X..
XXXXX X...X ..X.. ..X.. X...X ..X..
X...X XXXXX ..X.. ..X.. X...X ..X..
X...X X.... ..X.. ..X.. X...X .....
X...X .XXX. .XXX. .XXX. .XXX. ..X..

But I think that a custom control for iOS in Swift would see most use in games or applications displaying numeric parameters like volume level, geographical coordinates or RPM.

If you want to learn Python, here is a good book:

Learning Python
Learning Python
by Mark Lutz